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Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition caused by certain strains of bacteria that produce poisons (toxins). These toxins get into your bloodstream and can affect organs such as your heart, liver or kidneys. It's often associated with using tampons during menstruation. However, TSS can affect anyone of any age. Skin wounds, surgical incisions, nasal packing, scrapes, burns or other areas of injured skin can increase the risk of the condition. Half of all cases are unrelated to menstruation.
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Toxic shock syndrome affects 1 in every 100,000 people. TSS is more common in people assigned female at birth (AFAB), but it can affect anyone. Until the 1990s, it was most commonly associated with people using super-absorbent tampons during their period.
Most cases of toxic shock syndrome are caused by a toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph infection) and streptococcus pyogenes (group A strep infection). Clostridium sordellii can also cause toxic shock syndrome, but it's less common.
Leaving a tampon in too long is not the only way to get toxic shock syndrome. Medical experts now know that anything that stays in your vagina for longer than the recommended time can increase your risk for toxic shock syndrome. This includes contraception such as cervical caps, sponges or diaphragms, or menstrual cups (cups used during your period).
Toxic shock syndrome can occur when bacteria gets into open wounds, cuts or sores on your body. This can be from a skin infection, surgery, childbirth or a nosebleed that requires packed gauze to stop it.
The onset of symptoms is usually sudden. Toxic shock syndrome tends to occur within days of the bacteria invading your bloodstream. This doesn't mean that you will get toxic shock syndrome every time you have staph or strep infection, or that you will get it from leaving a tampon in longer than eight hours.
Treatment typically involves hospitalization due to the potentially life-threatening nature of toxic shock syndrome. First, your healthcare provider will remove any tampons or contraceptive devices from your vagina if that is suspected to be the cause. Then, you'll be given intravenous (IV) fluids and possibly medications to raise your blood pressure if it's low.
Toxic shock syndrome is serious and life-threatening. Symptoms can progress quickly, and immediate treatment is necessary. Shock, organ failure, amputation of limbs and death can occur if toxic shock syndrome is left untreated.
Most cases of toxic shock syndrome are associated with the use of highly absorbent tampons. People of childbearing age who use tampons during menstruation are at greater risk of developing it. However, cases of toxic shock syndrome also occur in non-menstruating people. People who have undergone surgery may develop wound infections that result in TSS.
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a rare but life-threatening condition caused by an overgrowth of two common bacteria. It causes your body to release toxins that can cause organ failure or death. Once thought to be solely related to tampon use, we now know that anyone of any age can get toxic shock syndrome. The main symptoms of TSS are sudden fever, flu-like symptoms, diarrhea and low blood pressure. Contact your healthcare provider or go to the emergency room if you have any signs of toxic shock syndrome. TSS requires prompt treatment with antibiotics, fluids and medication for the best outcomes.
Our bodies conduct electricity. If any part of your body meets live electricity an electric current flows through the tissues, which causes an electric shock. People sometimes call it electrocution. Depending on the length and severity the electric shock, injuries can include:
Although someone who has had an electric shock may appear unharmed, they should still receive medical attention. Some injuries and complications may not be obvious initially. A medical examination is important after any electric shock.
If someone needs to get out of the vehicle because of a hazard (such as fire) instruct them to keep their feet close together and to jump away, not walk. This can reduce the chance of an electric shock if wires are on the ground. Only advise this action if the person is unable to remain in the vehicle due to an immediate safety concern.
Safety switches quickly trip out the power when an electrical problem is detected. They can protect from harmful electric shocks when someone makes contact with a live electrical circuit (such as from faulty electrical leads and appliances) and provides a path to earth. Switches operate within 0.03 seconds.
A Class A Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI) works by detecting any loss of electrical current in a circuit (e.g., it will trip at a maximum of 6mA). When a loss is detected, the GFCI turns the electricity off before severe injuries or electrocution can occur. A painful non-fatal shock may occur during the time that it takes for the GFCI to cut off the electricity so it is important to use the GFCI as an extra protective measure rather than a replacement for safe work practices.
In English law, a nervous shock is a psychiatric / mental illness or injury inflicted upon a person by intentional or negligent actions or omissions of another. Often it is a psychiatric disorder triggered by witnessing an accident, for example an injury caused to one's parents or spouse. Although the term "nervous shock" has been described as "inaccurate" and "misleading", it continues to be applied as a useful abbreviation for a complex concept. The possibility of recovering damages for nervous shock, particularly caused by negligence, is strongly limited in English law.
To amount in law to "nervous shock", the psychiatric damage suffered by the claimant must extend beyond grief or emotional distress to a recognised mental illness, such as anxiety neurosis or reactive depression. Damages for bereavement suffered as a result of the wrongful death of a close one are available under the Fatal Accidents Act 1976, while courts can also award damages for "pain and suffering" as a result of physical injury.
For fear of spurious actions and unlimited liability of the defendant to all those who may suffer nervous shock in one form or other, the English courts have developed a number of "control mechanisms" or limitations of liability for nervous shock. These control mechanisms usually aim at limiting the scope of the defendant's duty of care not to cause nervous shock, as well as at causation and remoteness.
A "primary victim" is a person who was physically injured or could foresee-ably have been physically injured as a result of the defendants negligence. An example of this is a claimant who is involved in a car accident caused by the defendant's careless driving and gets mildly injured (or even remains unharmed) as a consequence, but the fright from the crash triggers a serious mental condition. Such a claimant can recover damages for his car, his minor injuries and the nervous shock he had suffered. Rescuers (such as firemen, policemen or volunteers) who put themselves in the way of danger and suffer psychiatric shock as a result used to be "primary victims", until the decision in White v Chief Constable of the South Yorkshire Police explained that rescuers had no special position in the law and had to prove reasonable fear as a consequence of exposure to danger.
A "secondary victim" is a person who suffers nervous shock without himself being exposed to danger. An example of this is a spectator at a car race, who witnesses a terrible crash caused by negligence on the part of the car manufacturers and develops a nervous illness as a result of his experience. It is in these cases where the courts have been particularly reluctant to award damages for nervous shock. In several decisions, the courts have identified several strict requirements for the recognition of a duty of care not to cause nervous shock, as well as causation and remoteness:
See also McLoughlin v O'Brian  2 All ER 298, where the House of Lords outlines the concept of "immediate aftermath" of the accident and Attia v British Gas plc  QB 304, where the Court of Appeal considered whether damages for nervous shock as a result of witnessing the destruction of property were recoverable.
Very low levels of cortisol in the blood can cause diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, low blood sugar levels, seizures and shock. Aldosterone also may be low, which leads to dehydration and low sodium and high potassium levels. The nonclassic form of CAH doesn't cause adrenal crisis. 350c69d7ab